We take even the smallest signs of skin cancer seriously and so should you. Some skin cancer is due in part to years of sun exposure and some can be hereditary. Dr. Khadavi performs regular exams on his patients to detect early signs of skin cancer. He also performs Mohs (micrographic surgery) to remove skin cancer.
WHAT IS SKIN CANCER?
Skin cancer is abnormal cell growth in some area of the skin. There are several types, including melanoma, which although it is the least frequent, is the most important, because it can be fatal. Skin cancer is the most frequent worldwide and has suffered a significant increase in recent years.
different types of skin cancer
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) - the second most common form of skin cancer, is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells arising from the squamous cells in the epidermis, the skin’s outermost layer. It is sometimes called cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) to differentiate it from very different kinds of SCCs elsewhere in the body.
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - abnormal, uncontrolled growths or lesions that arise in the skin’s basal cells, which line the deepest layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). BCCs often look like open sores, red patches, pink growths, shiny bumps, or scars and are usually caused by a combination of cumulative and intense, occasional sun exposure.
Melanoma - The most dangerous form of skin cancer, these cancerous growths develop when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds) triggers mutations (genetic defects) that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. These tumors originate in the pigment-producing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanomas often resemble moles; some develop from moles. The majority of melanomas are black or brown, but they can also be skin-colored, pink, red, purple, blue or white. Melanoma is caused mainly by intense, occasional UV exposure (frequently leading to sunburn), especially in those who are genetically predisposed to the disease.
WHAT IS MOHS SURGERY?
Mohs micrographic surgery is considered the most effective technique for treating many basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), the two most common types of skin cancer. The procedure is done in stages, including lab work, while the patient waits. This allows the removal of all cancerous cells for the highest cure rate while sparing healthy tissue and leaving the smallest possible scar. Using a scalpel, the surgeon removes a thin layer of visible cancerous tissue. Some skin cancers may be “the tip of the iceberg,” meaning they have roots or extensions that aren’t visible from the surface. The lab analysis, which comes next, will determine that. Your wound is bandaged temporarily and you can relax while the lab work begins. The surgeon cuts the tissue into sections, color codes them with dyes and draws a map of the surgical site. In the lab, a technician freezes the divided tissue, then cuts very thin horizontal slices like a layer cake. The slices are placed on microscope slides, stained and covered.
Using a microscope, the surgeon examines all the edges and underside of the tissue on the slides and, if any cancer cells remain, marks their location on the map. The physician then lets you know whether you need another layer of tissue removed. Back in the operating room, the surgeon injects more anesthesia if needed and removes another layer of skin, precisely where the cancer cells remain, based on the map. Then, while you wait, the lab work begins again. This entire process is repeated as many times as needed until there are no more cancer cells. Once the site is clear of all cancer cells, the wound may be left open to heal or the surgeon may close it with stitches. This depends on its size and location. In some cases, a wound may need reconstruction with a skin flap, where neighboring tissue is moved into the wound, or possibly a skin graft. In some cases, your Mohs surgeon may coordinate the repair of your wound with another specialist such as a plastic surgeon, oculoplastic surgeon or hand surgeon. In most instances, however, the Mohs surgeon will repair the wound immediately after obtaining clear margins.
*Procedure description credited to SkinCancerFoundation.org